Selenium is an essential element in the animal body microelements. It is a very valuable mineral because their functions in the animal metabolism are multiple and diverse nature. Although, it is widely recognized that its main role is as a cofactor of the glutationic peroxidase, in recent years the investigations have led to the conclusion that it is an essential mineral for the immune system. But what is the glutationic peroxidase? It is recognized that there may be eight or more types of glutationic peroxidases (GPX); however, it is in four of them that it has found a specific antioxidant effect. The GPX1 has as function to protect the hemoglobin in the red blood cells of a break oxidative stress. The GPX2 protects the animal organism of the toxic effect of the hydroperoxides ingested in the diet so that they can be found in the intestines. The best-known example is its action as acceptor (and) the hydroperoxide neutralizer of linoleic acid. The primary function of the GPX3 is to protect the cells and enzymes of the oxidative damage by catalyzing the reduction of the glutathione of hydrogen peroxide, fat peroxides and organic hydroperoxides. This enzyme is found throughout the body. Finally, the GPX5 represents a very interesting special case because it protects the membranes of the sperm of the oxidative damage.
Why is important the antioxidant action? Simply because the cell damage causes a deficiency in the functioning of the immune system, a reduction in the growth and productivity of the animals.
The glutationic peroxidase is used as selenium cofactor; in fact, we can say that the selenium is part of this enzyme. The biochemical mechanisms of the activity of the glutationic peroxidase are complex and include the intervention of other important cofactors like vitamin E and several enzymes such as dismutase superoxide. However, what we have to bear in mind is that without the presence of adequate levels of selenium in the body, it would not be possible to achieve the antioxidant effect necessary to maintain the health and productivity. For example, in numerous studies, it has been found that the use of resources for specific supplementation, as the addition of glutathione or vitamin E to the diet, do not provide the benefits expected if the ration does not contain the required levels of selenium. It has also based in injections of vitamin E and selenium; and although this is an excellent resource for cases of acute deficiency that arrive to compromise the immune system, is not a practical system to settle on a permanent basis the requirement of selenium.
The addition of selenium in rations for dairy cattle is almost always essential (except in regions with selenosis in the soil) and there are several forms of supplementation of this mineral, either alone or combined with organic compounds. However, in yearling calves, there is the problem that the ingestion of solid food (concentrate) will increase gradually during breastfeeding so that it is difficult to dispense a supplementation program with selenium. Another of the problems posed by this situation is that virtually all the calves are born with selenium deficiency in his agency because the mother does not provide the necessary quantities of ore during the development of the fetus. This is very critical due to the newly born will need the presence of selenium from its first colostrum intake.
That is why researchers have developed systems of selenium supplementation in the liquid phase (milk or milk replacement) for the nutrition of newborn calves; this is achieved by means of its specific to probiotics ligature that properties can be added from the first shot of colostrum and maintained during the entire breastfeeding process and even up to the age of six months.
The selenium in Celtic® Mox
Celtic® Mox is a mixture of probiotics scientifically designed by Celtic Holland to strengthen the immunity of the calves in lactation and even after, at least until the age of 6 months, when the cellular immunity of the animal has fully matured and allows them to meet the antigenic challenges with greater efficiency. Its significance and effects on immunity and development of calves in breastfeeding have been detailed in a previous Bulletin of Celtic® Holland. However, on this occasion, we will refer to other of the multiple benefits that reported its supplementation in the supply pre-weaning.
The selenium that contains Celtic® Mox is linked to these probiotics, allowing you to reach high bioavailability and be exploited fully. Furthermore, its condition of organic mineral (linked to the cell membranes of probiotics) makes it impossible to the occurrence of a problem of excessive ingestion or poisoning by selenium.
Numerous field trials performed in different geographical areas and in particular in the dairy farms of the “Comarca Lagunera” and in México, has found a highly significant effect of the addition of Celtic® Mox to the liquid phase of the supply of the calves, whether milk or milk replacement. These tests have been carried out over the course of almost ten years and the results have been broadly consistent with improvements in daily weight gain (calves amounted to more than double their weight at two months of age), increase in height to the height of the rump and the cross; increasing the width of the hip and body length measured from the tip of the isquiones to the tip of the shoulder (humeral tuberosity) and greater development of the thoracic perimeter measured behind the tip of the elbows.
We have not said all yet, the most important thing found in these comments was the decrease in morbidity. This was a particularly important challenge in these dairy farms of thousands of cows in milking because, due to their excellent handling, its mortality rate in lactation was only 1 to 3 per cent. However, in all of them, the morbidity was significant, with large increases in pneumonia in winter and diarrhea in summer. In any way, the morbidity rate in these breeding of calves was 15 until 35%. The addition of Celtic® milk replacement Mox throughout the lactation reduced the morbidity rate to a range of 5 to 10%. The difference was highly significant in all cases.
The action of probiotics of Celtic® Mox as a supplier of nutrients and as immunostimulant has proven itself with many similar products that are available in the market. However, in our field tests, in comparative studies, has proved to be a very superior performance in animals supplemented with Celtic® MOX. These results have been found in thousands of calves in lactation.
There are no known all the mechanisms by which the addition of Celtic® organic selenium Mox enhances the status of immunity in the calves, but investigations to date have revealed a double effect of stimulation of immunity due to the beta-glucans of its probiotics and to the optimization of the antioxidants mechanisms mediated by the glutationic peroxidase that are dependent on selenium. In any way, our field tests on numerous occasions have yielded conclusive results and highly consistent.
Another interesting aspect of the use of Celtic® Mox at some (because unfortunately was not made in all) dairy farms was its addition to the colostrum from the first shot offered to calves immediately after birth. The addition of Celtic® to colostrum increased in 20% up to 40% the efficiency of absorption of immunoglobulins (antibodies) in replacement calves and presumably extended the time of absorption of colostrum during the first 24 hours of life. The impact of this increase in exploitation of the colostrum to the establishment of immunity calostral is very high due to that means the difference between having a yearly calve (with hypogammaglobulinemia immunologically deficient) or with a solid system of organic defenses (normogamaglobulinemic). For example, a yearly calve with 10 mg/ml (milligrams per milliliter) of immunoglobulins (with immunity calostral low) would have been able to achieve 12 to 14 mg/ml. In the same way, a becerra with immunity (with 15 adequate moderately mg/ml) could have 18 to 21 mg/ml. This influences the optimal level of immunity calostral (20 mg/ml).
Celtic®® Mox indispensable in the rearing of calves
The mechanisms by which the addition of selenium to colostrum of replacement calves increases the efficiency of absorption have not been well established, although Japanese researchers of the University of Hokkaido attribute it to a purely pharmacological effect. However, however, the results of our field tests with Celtic® Mox have been strong and consistent in thousands of calves. It is not necessary to elaborate on specific numbers on the cost-benefit of supplementation with Celtic® Mox milk replacement for calves, since the conditions of handling, the level of food and nutrient density are highly variable between farms. In these huge dairy farms, the best proof is success in dairy business.
Having said all of the above we invite you to examine all the aspects of health, nutrition, facilities, management of colostrum, vaccination and biosecurity.
Our technical department has highly qualified consultants in the rearing of calves that will guide you on the use, dosage and supplementation with Celtic® Mox and suggests solutions to the general problem of its exploitation.